There are tons and tons of different coffee brewers, with even different variants of the same one. Each and every brewer, from French press to espresso machine brew coffee unique to their own style.
The French press, despite its name, is actually an Italian invention. The press itself is made out of a glass or stainless steel tube, and has a steel mesh filter attached, that wen plunged down, filters the coffee from the grounds. The French press is known to brew some of the most flavorful coffee possible, because ts steel mesh filter allows just about all of t he dissolved solids and naturally occurring oils into the coffee cup. Simply add 200 degree water to coarse ground coffee inside of it, let it steep for 4 minutes, plunge, and serve.
An espresso machine comes in several styles, from manual to super-automatic. Manual machines require the user to grind the coffee, tamp, and even use a lever to force the hot water through the espresso puck. Whereas when going up to a super-automatic machine, everything is done at the push of a button. Espresso machines brew concentrated one ounce shots of coffee that are usually added with steamed milk to create drinks such as a latte.
A brewer that is extremely common in most kitchens and office break rooms is the typical drip coffee brewer. Automatic drip coffee brewers are one of the easiest ways to brew consistent coffee, especially in large amounts. Though, the coffee itself is usually not extremely flavorful, but it is still very drinkable. To brew with one, all you need is water, the machine, coffee, and the specific style of filter that the machine uses.
Pourovers are the next step up when it comes to something that uses a paper filter. A pourover is a glass, plastic, or ceramic funnel that holds a cone shaped coffee filter. It is essentially just the brew basket portion of an automatic drip brewer. Simply insert a rinsed filter, add the coffee grounds, and slowly pour water from a gooseneck kettle over the grounds. The pourover offers a lot of freedom when it comes to brewing, as the flavor can easily be changed by the water temperature or however fast the person is pouring the water.
One of the more recent coffee brewing contraptions that has gained a lot of footing in the coffee world, is the AeroPress. Invented in 2005, the AeroPress is one of the most versatile coffee brewers on the market. Despite its small size, it is very easy to make batches of coffee with it. The AeroPress can use coffee grounds of all different grind levels, as well as different amounts of water. When using a finer grind, a shorter steeping time is needed than if using a more coarse one. I like to use the AeroPress to sample small amount of coffee, such as the random Keurig pods I will sometimes get in the mail.